#philosopher  a specialist in philosophy
  subtype:  #nativist  #eclectic  #empiricist  #epistemologist  #esthetician  #ethicist  #existentialist  #gymnosophist {#libertarian #necessitarian}  #mechanist  #moralist  #pluralist.philosopher  #realist  #Stoic  #transcendentalist  #yogi
  instance:  #Pierre_Abelard  #Aristotle  #Francis_Bacon  #Jeremy_Bentham  #Henri_Louis_Bergson  #Bishop_Berkeley  #Anicius_Manlius_Severinus_Boethius  #Giordano_Bruno  #Martin_Buber  #Ernst_Cassirer  #Cleanthes  #Isidore_Auguste_Marie_Francois_Comte  #Confucius  #Democritus  #Jacques_Derrida  #Rene_Descartes  #John_Dewey  #Denis_Diderot  #Diogenes  #Empedocles  #Epicurus  #Ernst_Heinrich_Haeckel  #David_Hartley  #Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel  #Martin_Heidegger  #Heraclitus  #Johann_Friedrich_Herbart  #Johann_Gottfried_von_Herder  #Thomas_Hobbes  #David_Hume  #Edmund_Husserl  #Hypatia  #William_James  #Immanuel_Kant  #Soren_Aabye_Kierkegaard  #Lao-tzu  #Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz  #John_Locke  #Titus_Lucretius_Carus  #Raymond_Lully  #Ernst_Mach  #Niccolo_Machiavelli  #Moses_Maimonides  #Nicolas_de_Malebranche  #Herbert_Marcuse  #Karl_Marx  #George_Herbert_Mead  #John_Stuart_Mill  #James_Mill  #Baron_de_la_Brede_et_de_Montesquieu  #George_Edward_Moore  #Friedrich_Wilhelm_Nietzsche  #William_of_Occam  #Jose_Ortega_y_Gasset  #Blaise_Pascal  #Charles_Franklin_Peirce  #Ralph_Barton_Perry  #Plato  #Pythagoras  #Thomas_Reid  #Jean-Jacques_Rousseau  #Bertrand_Arthur_William_Russell  #Arthur_Schopenhauer  #Albert_Schweitzer  #Lucius_Annaeus_Seneca  #Socrates  #Herbert_Spencer  #Oswald_Spengler  #Benedict_de_Spinoza  #Dugald_Stewart  #Pierre_Teilhard_de_Chardin  #Thales_of_Miletus  #Theophrastus  #Simone_Weil  #Alfred_North_Whitehead  #Ludwig_Josef_Johan_Wittgenstein  #Xenophanes  #Zeno_of_Citium  #Zeno_of_Elea
  supertype:  #intellectual__intellect  a person who uses the mind creatively
     supertype:  #person__individual__someone__somebody__mortal__human__human_being__humanbeing__soul  a human being; "there was too much for one person to do"
        supertype:  sumo#human  a modern man (member of the only remaining species of the Homo genus)
           supertype:  sumo#cognitive_agent__cognitiveagent  (many specializations)$ sentient_agent with responsibilities and the ability to reason, deliberate, make plans, etc; this is essentially the legal/ethical notion of a person; chimpanzees, gorillas, dolphins, whales, and some extraterrestrials (if they exist) may be cognitive_agents
              supertype:  sumo#sentient_agent  an agent that has rights but may or may not have responsibilities and the ability to reason; if the latter are present, then the agent is also a cognitive_agent; domesticated animals are an example of sentient_agents that are not also cognitive_agents
                 supertype:  pm#entity_that_can_be_or_was_alive  e.g., an animal, a cell
                    supertype:  dl#agentive_physical_object__APO  something or someone that can act on its own and produce changes in the world
                       supertype:  dl#physical_object__POB
                          supertype:  pm#physical_entity__object  spatial entity made of matter
                             supertype:  dl#physical_endurant__PED
                                supertype:  pm#spatial_object__spatialobject  object which as a direct spatial location, e.g., physical object, spatial region or shape
                                   supertype:  sumo#object__entity_with_spatial_feature  spatial object (space, location or physical object) or description medium/container (e.g., string, language, image); in a 4D ontology, an object is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into spatial parts roughly parallel to the time-axis
                                      supertype:  pm#entity  something that can be "involved" in a situation
                                         supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                                      supertype:  sumo#physical__physical_thing  an entity that has a location in space-time; locations are themselves understood to have a location in space-time; click here for more details on the identical category sowa#physical_thing
                                         supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                                   supertype:  cyc#partially_tangible__partiallytangible  A subcollection of cyc#SpatialThing-Localized and cyc#TemporalThing. Each instance of cyc#PartiallyTangible has a tangible (i.e. material) part and a temporal extent (i.e. it exists in time). It might or might not also have an intangible part. For example, a particular copy of a book is made of matter, has temporal extent, and also has an intangible part: the information content of the text markings on its pages.
                                      supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                                   supertype:  pm#individual__particular___supertype_of_1st_order_types  all individuals (for concepts or relations) are implicitely or explicitely instance of that type
                                      supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                                supertype:  dl#endurant__ED
                                   supertype:  pm#entity  something that can be "involved" in a situation
                                   supertype:  3D#thing  an object seen from a 3D (or endurantist) perspective, i.e. where a spatial entity may have a time independent identity, as opposed for example to the 4D perspective where each spatial entity has an associated time frame; click here and here for details
                                      supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                                   supertype:  dl#endurant_or_perdurant__ED_or_PD
                                      supertype:  dl#quality_or_endurant_or_perdurant__Q_or_ED_or_PD
                                         supertype:  dl#entity  a category from DOLCE or generalized by a category from DOLCE
                                            supertype:  pm#individual__particular___supertype_of_1st_order_types  all individuals (for concepts or relations) are implicitely or explicitely instance of that type
                                supertype:  dl#PQ_or_PED_or_PR_or_PD
                                   supertype:  dl#quality_or_endurant_or_perdurant__Q_or_ED_or_PD
                             supertype:  cyc#tangible  Something which is not intangible, something which is physical, made of matter. It does not matter whether things are real of imaginary. Therefore we consider Mickey Mouse's car and a hippogriff as  tangible things
                                supertype:  cyc#temporal_thing  The collection of all things that have temporal extent or location, i.e. things about which one might sensibly ask When? . cyc#TemporalThing thus contains many kinds of things, including events, physical objects, agreements, and abstract pieces of time. Note that cyc#TimePoint is a specialization of cyc#TemporalThing, since time points have temporal location, although they arguably lack temporal extent. Abstract things that are timeless -- such as mathematical sets, attributes, and numbers -- are of course _not_ instances of cyc#TemporalThing.
                                   supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                       supertype:  pm#causal_entity__agent  something (animal or software agent) able to act
                          supertype:  pm#entity_playing_some_role  e.g., an agent, an owner
                             supertype:  pm#entity  something that can be "involved" in a situation
                             supertype:  pm#thing_that_can_be_seen_as_a_relation  usable as relation type
                                supertype:  pm#thing_playing_some_role  category to classify things according to roles/viewpoints; classification under this category is application-dependant
                                   supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
                          supertype:  #causal_agent__cause__causal_agency  any entity that causes events to happen
                             supertype:  pm#thing_playing_some_role  category to classify things according to roles/viewpoints; classification under this category is application-dependant
                          supertype:  cyc#temporal_thing  The collection of all things that have temporal extent or location, i.e. things about which one might sensibly ask When? . cyc#TemporalThing thus contains many kinds of things, including events, physical objects, agreements, and abstract pieces of time. Note that cyc#TimePoint is a specialization of cyc#TemporalThing, since time points have temporal location, although they arguably lack temporal extent. Abstract things that are timeless -- such as mathematical sets, attributes, and numbers -- are of course _not_ instances of cyc#TemporalThing.
                 supertype:  pm#cognitive_agent__cognitiveagent  for example an organization, an animal or an AI-agent
                    supertype:  pm#goal_directed_agent  goal directed causal entity, e.g., a problem solver or an interactional agent
                       supertype:  pm#causal_entity__agent  something (animal or software agent) able to act
                       supertype:  pm#processing_thing
                          supertype:  pm#thing_playing_some_role  category to classify things according to roles/viewpoints; classification under this category is application-dependant
                    supertype:  aktp#AKTP_concept
                       supertype:  pm#thing_categorized_in_an_ontology
                          supertype:  pm#thing__something___T__t___3D_or_4D_thing_or_anything_else  any category (type or individual) is instance of this type; any type is also a subtype of this type
        supertype:  menu#person_or_organization  this category is for menu-generation purposes
           supertype:  aktp#Legal-Agent  agent with legal status, e.g., organizations and people
              supertype:  pm#cognitive_agent__cognitiveagent  for example an organization, an animal or an AI-agent
        supertype:  #human__man__homo__human_being__humanbeing  any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae
           supertype:  #hominid  a primate of the family Hominidae
              supertype:  #primate  any placental mammal of the order Primates; has good eyesight and flexible hands and feet
                 supertype:  #placental_mammal__placentalmammal__placental__eutherian__eutherian_mammal__eutherianmammal  mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
                    supertype:  #mammal  any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk
                       supertype:  #vertebrate__craniate  animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
                          supertype:  #chordate  any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column
                             supertype:  #animal__animate_being__animatebeing__beast__brute__creature__fauna  a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
                                supertype:  #living_thing__organism__being  a living (or once living) entity that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
                                   supertype:  pm#entity_that_can_be_or_was_alive  e.g., an animal, a cell
        supertype:  aktp#Person
           supertype:  aktp#Organization-Unit_or_Organization_or_Person
              supertype:  aktp#Legal-Agent  agent with legal status, e.g., organizations and people

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